Archive for the ‘History’ Category

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Near North Riverfront

June 2, 2013

The New Mississippi River Bridge is coming along quickly, and will soon raise the visibility of the Near North Riverfront neighborhood, and its main drag North Broadway.

Mound Street Bridge, Mississippi River, Cass Avenue Bridge

New Mississippi River Bridge from Broadway and Mound

This section of Broadway has a fairly intact built environment and is home to many businesses.  Admittedly it’s in pretty bad shape, but the potential here is humongous.

Near North Riverfront North Broadway Revitalization

Warehouses on North Broadway

Although the thoroughfare is major and many of its buildings are large, the street still has a human scale.  One of my favorite parts of coming here on the weekends is the large number of people out on their motorcycles (presumably many of them are in the area for Shady Jacks).

Motorcycle Tricks Wheelie

North Broadway is already a pretty cool place

Because this area is about to see a lot more traffic, developers will be tempted to build truck stops and drive-thrus with giant billboards and signs to advertise them.  Competitions for who can build the biggest and newest gas stations (or chain drug stores, etc.) have destroyed enough of our great intersections and commercial strips.

Highway Advertising, Urban Blight

Downtown St. Louis Interstate 70 Billboard

I hope the city is working to ensure that development around the new bridge will help knit together the neighborhoods north of downtown, rather than create more barriers in the form of auto-centric development.  670 Million dollars is a big investment that St. Louis needs to take advantage of.

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Ash Pits and Coal Chutes

May 9, 2013

Coal powered the industrial revolution in its beginnings in England, during its American continuation in New England and down the east coast.  Coal facilitated the rust belt’s rise, and remarkably remains the dominant source of energy worldwide today.  St. Louis is currently home to several large coal companies including Peabody, Patriot and Arch, but the heyday of coal usage in St. Louis (and the US) is in the past.

Peabody Coal's Mid-Century-Modern HQ

Peabody Energy’s Former Headquarters on Memorial Drive

At the middle of the 20th century most homes in the area were heated by coal (National use peaked around 1940, St. Louis experienced the worst side effects in late 1939).  I’ve heard stories about horse drawn wagons traversing the alleyways of St. Louis and dispersing various grades of coal to its consumers at least until that time.  Some reminders of this era remain, notably the coal chute doors (often marked by brand names like Banner, Schurk, Manchester, Mechanics or Majestic) that can be spotted on houses in every neighborhood of the city and in many parts of St. Louis County.

Historic Coal Chute Doors of Missouri

Coal Chute Doors

Ash pits are slightly harder to notice due to their placement on alleys, but are nonetheless an ever-present reminder of our coal heritage.  The most recognizable and common model of ash pit in the city is P.A. Shorb’s:

P.A. Shorb Ash Pit in a St. Louis City Alley

Ash Pits in-use as planters: P. A. Shorb 1475 Graham

See more photos of these relics below:

Masonic Temple Midtown Albert Groves Grand Center St. Louis University

Coal Chute Door on Masonic Temple on Lindell

Majestic:

Majestic Coal Chute Door

Older in the Gate District:

Coal Chute Door in the Gate District double door swing lock

Adapted to modern usage:

Coal Chute Door in use as a vent in South St. Louis

Ash Pit with Cacti:

Cacti in an Ash Pit in Kingsway East Neighborhood of North St. Louis

For more photos of Coal Chutes and Ash Pits see my flickr set.

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Carriage Blocks and Hitching Posts

November 7, 2012

While strolling around Layfayette Square a few weeks ago, I noticed for the first time that several homes around the square have stone blocks out near the curb in front of them.

A carriage step is a block of stone placed near the edge of the street usually in line with the front doorway of a home, it served as a stepping stone to help passengers as they climbed in and out of carriages. Popular back in the horse and buggy days of the 19th century carriage steps could be seen in towns and cities all over the United States. They are rarely seen in the present day as most carriage steps have been destroyed because they became obsolete when cars took over as primary transportation. – Carriage Steps in the United States

Just in case you didn’t click the link, that quote is the description of a youtube video.  I must not be using the right search terms.

Dr. Luytie’s Home on Lafayette Square

Despite an apparent lack of interest on the internet, I personally find these relics of our horse-drawn past fascinating.  In the photo above, a carriage stone advertises the mansion’s owner.  Dr. Luytie’s company is still in operation today as 1-800-HOMEOPATHY.

Carriage Stone on St. Louis Avenue in North St. Louis

These reminders of a seemingly distant past can be found in many part of the city.  Below is a concrete carriage block and hitching post near the intersection of Utah and Texas in Benton Park West.

Dr. A. S. in BPW

See more photos of carriage blocks and hitching posts that I’ve noticed around St. Louis here.

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Cast Iron Storefronts

August 30, 2012

Ubiquitous in almost every neighborhood in the City of St. Louis (and most inner-ring suburbs as well), cast iron storefronts offer a glimpse into St. Louis’ once booming architectural iron industry.  Ranging from purely functional to elaborately ornamented, and from lovingly cared for to all but forgotten, these architectural elements reflect the diversity and character of  St. Louis and its neighborhoods.

Union Iron & Foundry Co. Cast Iron Storefront on S. 4th Street Downtown

In the peak of their production, from the 1890s to the 1910s, St. Louis exported cast iron storefronts all around the region and out to the boom towns of the west.  Most well known and prolific were the Mesker Brothers (a company that doesn’t have a single storefront in town that I know of) and George L. Mesker & Co (brother to the Mesker Brothers) based out of Evansville, Indiana.  Because there is a wealth of information about these companies already available on the web (start here), and because there are so few of them that have been identified in the City of St. Louis, this acknowledgement is as far as I’m going to take the topic of the Mesker Brothers.

Mesker Brothers Side by Side in Wickliffe, KY

Luckily, although the Mesker Brothers’ signature was not left very apparently (at least to me) on their work in the City of St. Louis, their local competition made sure that their names would be remembered.  Below is a photographic inventory of all of the local Iron Works, Foundries and Manufacturing companies that produced cast iron storefronts in St. Louis, for St. Louis (as far as I know – I’m sure there are more out there and I’d love to hear about them).  So here it is, Cast Iron Storefronts, B through V.

Banner Iron Works

Banner Iron Works

Chester Iron & Foundry Co. (On right)

Chester Iron & Fdy Co.

Christopher and Simpson (J. Christopher & Co)

Christopher & Simpson

Gerst Bros Mfg. Co.

Gerst Bros

Globe Iron and Foundry Company

Globe Iron & Foundry Company

Kilpatrick & Gray

Kilpatrick & Gray

Koken Iron Works (Scherpe & Koken, Scherpe, Koken & Graydon)

Scherpe & Koken

Meyerpeter & LeLaurin

Meyerpeter & LeLaurin – South St. Louis, MO

Pullis Bro’s (T.R. Pullis & Sons, T.R. Pullis & Bro, Pullis Brothers)

Pullis Bro’s

South St. Louis Foundry (S. STL. F)

South St. Louis Foundry

Standard Foundry

Standary Foundry Co

St. Louis Architectural Iron Co.

St. Louis Architectural Iron Co – One of the more distinctive nameplates

The Union Iron and Foundry Co.

Union Iron and Foundry Co

Victor Iron Works

Victor Iron Works

For more photographs of cast iron storefronts around St. Louis and elsewhere, visit my Flickr photo set Cast Iron Storefronts.

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Fox Park Sidewalk Markers

June 26, 2012

The Fox Park Neighborhood has a wonderful variety of sidewalk markers.

Laid by The Weir Co – 613 Chestnut

My personal favorite is The Weir Co’s clover-shaped marker.  The bold lettering and design do a good job of catching the eye.  This marker really demonstrates the pride its layer takes in his work.  Less than a block away is the American Granit Flagging Company.

American Granit Flagging Co. – 1820 Park Ave

Unfortunately I was unable to locate any information online about either American Granit Flagging or The Weir Co.

Gilsonite Roofing and Paving Co – St. Louis, MO – 1892

Unlike the two companies above, Gilsonite Roofing and Paving turns up a lot of results on Google.  From the Report of the U.S. Inspector for Indian Territory:

Gilsonite’s 10 cent a ton asphalt

After finding and photographing so many rectangular, circular, and oval shaped sidewalk markers, it’s really nice to come across some different shapes.  Here’s another marker I found just outside of Fox Park in Compton Heights:

Missouri Granitoid & Sidewalk Co. – 617 Chestnut Street

In the St. Louis Place neighborhood I came across a very similar sidewalk marker with a slightly different name and an entierly different address:

Missouri Granitoid Paving Co – 1895 – 1447 Cass Avenue

St. Louis has so many miles of historic sidewalks that I doubt I’ll every be able to walk down them all, but I’m going to keep on trying.

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S.P. McKelvey & Co

January 27, 2012

S.P. McKelvey & Co was a big player in the sidewalk business of late 19th Century St. Louis.  A company he helped run, The St. Louis Flagstone Company, was in the sidewalk business starting in 1882 according to The Industries of St. Louis by J. W. Leonard (1887).

St. Louis Flagstone Company. — H. L. Haydel, Cashier; S. P. McKelvey, Superintendent; Stone Sidewalks; 618 Chestnut street. — This business was established in 1882 and has been conducted with steadily increasing success from that time to the present. The company have been city contractors for paving and flagging for the past three years. They handle every description of stone and have a very large business in laying sidewalks for property owners. About a year ago, Messrs. Haydel and McKelvey bought a half interest in the firm of P. M. Bruner & Co., manufacturers of Granitoid. Up to this writing the firm have made contracts during the present year for laying over 60,000 feet of stone flagging. They possess unsurpassed facilities for carrying on work in their line, and every contract taken by them is executed in a workmanlike manner, and to the entire satisfaction of the customer. Mr. Haydel is treasurer and Mr. McKelvey secretary of the St. Louis Reclining Car Seat Co., and both are gentlemen of superior business attainments, enjoying, in a marked degree, the esteem and confidence of the business community.

In 1890, he started S.P. McKelvey & Company.

Laid 1890 – S.P. McKelvey – St. Louis, MO

From Pen and Sunlight Sketches of Saint Louis: The Commercial Gateway to the South (1892):

The marvelous improvements effected in the manufacture of material for sidewalks, driveways, cellar floors, etc., has effected a complete revolution in the cement trade, and opened up fresh fields of usefulness for its representatives. One of the principal of these in St. Louis, although but recently established, the date being August 1, 1890, is the house of Messrs. S. P. McKelvey & Co., of suite 409, Commercial building. The members of the firm are Messrs. S. P. McKelvey, Frank Sullivan and R. G. Mayhew. Mr. McKelvey is a resident of Chicago, where he is connected with the Granitoid Company of that city. The granite composition stone laid down by this firm is, as its name implies, a mixture of crushed granite with cement, and presents all the desirable features of the solid stone. It is made as required at the scene of operations, and is unrivaled for sidewalks, drives, curbs, gutters, basement floors, brewery and malt house floors, steps, copings, etc., being absolutely impervious to the weather, and as durable as the stone itself. They have just completed a very extensive set of steps for the Grand Avenue Presbyterian Church, containing ten rises twenty-five feet long, with no joints whatever. They are prepared to execute the largest contracts in this useful department of industry with promptitude, and guarantee in every case perfect satisfaction. The house is rapidly acquiring a splendid connection in the city and its environs, and some idea of its rapid development may be obtained from the fact that during the first nine months of 1891, business to the value of $125,000 was transacted. Mr. Sullivan is a native of Ireland, and Mr. Mayhew of Germany, both gentlemen being popular and respected in all circles of the city. Their office is elegant in its appointments and furniture, and has every convenience for the accommodation of customers, such as telephonic communication (call No. 1461) etc. This is a pushing and enterprising house that deservedly merits its success.

The company certainly did fine work, judging from the current state of their surviving sidewalks and by the prevalence of sidewalks that they constructed.

The following is a continued history of S.P. McKelvey & Co through photographs of dated sidewalk markers.

By 1895 the company was called McKelvey, Mayhew and Graham.

McKelvey, Mayhew & Graham – Laid 1895

Just a year later, Mayhew & Graham were alone but were including the text “Successors to S.P. McKelvey & Co” on their sidewalk markers and in their advertisements.

Mayhew & Graham – Successors to S.P. McKelvey & Co.

By 1898 Mayhew and Graham no longer needed the reference.

Mayhew and Graham – 1898

Frank Sullivan (an original member of S.P. McKelvey & Company) had parted ways at least as early as 1896 (the oldest marker of his that I’ve found), but didn’t stray too far from the format of the marker that had been used at S. P. McKelvey & Co. a decade earlier.

Frank J. Sullivan – 1902

By 1903 Graham was also out on his own.

Graham Granitoid Co. – Laid 1903

Graham was in the Granitoid business at least until 1910 (the most recently dated sidewalk marker of his that I’ve found).

Graham Granitoid Co. – Laid 1910

It’s amazing to be able to see this history preserved all over the city.  As I encounter more of this company’s work, I will post updates here.

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More St. Louis Sidewalk Markers

August 26, 2011

This weekend I hit a lucky streak and found three sidewalk markers in the City of St. Louis that I had never come across before.  For some reason, in other cities I am able to spot these sidewalk stamps all over the place, but in St. Louis they’re able to elude me.  After this weekend, however, I am sure that there are many more out there.

Mayhew & Graham Granitoid - Laid 1899 St. Louis, MO

In the above photograph is my first spotting of the weekend.  It is located directly in front of the entrance to the St. Louis Braid Co. on Lucas Street, a location where I am sure it is appreciated.  On Google books I was able to find an advertisement for Mayhew & Graham in the 1896 publication, Water and Sewage Works, Volume 11.

Mayhew & Graham - Room 409 Commercial Building

According to an article in the same publication, Mayhew and Graham was reported as having “just completed a contract…for laying…eight miles of sidewalks in…Choteau Place”, referring to the Choteau Place Addition in the Greater Ville.

F.B. Klein Granitoid

This next sidewalk marker, from the F.B. Klein Granitoid Company, also has a little bit of history that can be traced via Google.  Located at 1424 Blair Avenue just north of Downtown, F.B. Klein was at least an occasional buyer of P.M. Bruner’s Granitoid according to the clipping below.

Bruner v. Klien

Ironically, just a few yards ahead of the F.B. Klein marker was a P.M. Bruner.

P.M. Bruner Granitoid

At this point I have come across many P.M. Bruner Sidewalk Markers (at least two different variations) and have seen even more in photographs on the internet.  His influence may spread at least as far as Seattle, as my speculative post from earlier this month suggests.

Granitoid Flagging

The above sidewalk marker, the last of my three new discoveries this weekend, is a very interesting example.  An intact, but otherwise identical, copy of this marker on DJDenim’s Flickr stream  shows the address on the sidewalk marker as 512 S. Jefferson Ave.  According to the American Engineering Register of 1885, the resident at the address was a Civil Engineer by the name of Bruner, P.M..   I wonder what it was about 512 S. Jefferson that made it so appealing to these men of Granitoid?

Stretch of Different Sidewalk Squares

This exercise of researching sidewalk contractors using Google demonstrates the ability of the search engine, and the value of the these remarkable links to the past.  As I learn more about this one aspect of cities, my overall understanding of their urban histories is increased as well. To see my entire collection of sidewalk contractor stamp/marker photos, visit this flickr map.  Locations are often only as specific as the city that the sidewalk is in, but are sometimes more accurate.

Update:

This afternoon I went up to The Ville and found three sidewalk markers that correspond with the 1896 article on Mayhew & Graham.

Mayhew & Graham - Laid 1896

Pretty cool, huh?

And here is a flickr set of all my St. Louis sidewalk marker photos.

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P.M. Bruner Sidewalk Lights in Seattle, WA

August 3, 2011

As I walk down unfamiliar sidewalks I make sure not to ignore the ground, always on the lookout for sidewalk markers.  Due to this conditioned vigilance, I have accumulated a decent photographic collection of these markers from cities all around the country.  Right now for example, I am in Aurora, IL, a Chicago Exurb whose attractive city center is loaded with sidewalk markers that I am quite happy to have stumbled upon.  This particular sidewalk contractor stamp includes an exact date:

Happy 29th Birthday!

The details that some sidewalk stamps carry provide starting points for research that can reveal much about a city’s past.  While visiting Seattle last month I came across a nice selection of sidewalk stamps and markers, the bulk of them concentrated in Pioneer Square.  Pioneer Square has a remarkable history as Seattle’s original downtown.  After the “Great Seattle Fire” of 1889 (seems like every American city has had a great fire), the city began rebuilding immediately, but soon after reconstruction had begun planners made the decision to raise the streets up a story to remedy a problem with flooding during high tide.  During this transition, building entrances were moved up to what became street level, and new sidewalks were built one story above the old ones.  Because the original ground level entrances were sometimes still in use underground, many sidewalks in this area have skylights to allow light into the passages below.  A popular tourist attraction, the Seattle Underground Tour, allows you to walk along some of these underground sidewalks and listen to bad jokes.

Sidewalk Skylight as Seen from the Underground Tour

These skylights are all over Pioneer Square and are hard to miss for even someone with only a casual interest in sidewalks (I assume).  The fact that so many of the sidewalks in Pioneer Square are over 100 years old is awesome to me, but, after almost a month in Seattle and regular trips to Pioneer Square and other sections of the city’s historic core, I stopped carrying my camera after dark.  I figured that anything I was interested in, I had already photographed several times.  Thank God for camera phones, because on one of my last nights in Seattle I looked down and saw this:

Installed by L.A. Norris - Bruner Patents

This sight brought me back almost to the beginning of my relationship with sidewalk markers.  An interest that began after coming across a St. Louis Sidewalk Company sidewalk marker.  After making this initial discovery I started enthusiastically searching the internet for more, and the first bit of gold I struck was a flickr photo of a P.M. Bruner Sidewalk marker in Tower Grove East.  I immediately began walking blocks in the neighborhood until I found them myself, and since then I have come across several identical markers in other sections of the city.

P.M. Bruner Sidewalk Marker

Almost every new sidewalk marker I see gets its text googled, and this one was no exception.  Unlike most cement contractors, however, P.M. Bruner has a pretty serious online presence, particularly if you perform a Google Patent search.  Interestingly enough, Preston Martin Bruner of St. Louis, Missouri holds several patents for Sidewalk Lights that closely resemble those visible in the photo of L.A. Norris’ sidewalk.

Sidewalk Light Construction - P.M. Bruner

Is it possible that a St. Louisan designed this technology that helps make Seattle’s Pioneer Square so cool?  It is very possible, but unfortunately, all I can do is speculate and continue to keep my eyes and ears open.  If anyone has more information on this subject, please share.

Update:

I found a website with a photo of a P.M. Bruner sidewalk with “vault lights” in Houston, TX.

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Vote for Cahokia Mounds! Only Three Days Left!

June 27, 2011

The National Trust for Historic Preservation is currently hosting a Community Challenge that will give the three historic sites with the most votes a cash prize.  Currently, Cahokia Mounds is ranked 13th and will require a big push during the last three days of voting to make it into the top three.

As a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Cahokia Mounds gives the St. Louis Area an extremely unique International attraction.  While visiting Berlin recently, I found many references to Museum Island‘s designation as a UNESCO site.  This is a source of great pride for the people of Berlin.  Unfortunately, I don’t think that most St. Louisans appreciate the significance of Cahokia Mounds and are unaware of its status as a World Heritage Site (nobody in my family knew that we had a UNESCO site in St. Louis when I mentioned it in Berlin).  This is our chance to both contribute to Cahokia Mounds, and to help spread the appreciation of our history that the United Nations recognizes while many locals fail to.

If the flying saucer on Grand is worth fighting for, Cahokia Mounds certainly is too.

Click on the image above to register, and cast your vote for Cahokia Mounds.

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The 10th Street Mall in LaSalle Park

June 21, 2011

A few weeks ago I had the day off and needed to take my car to the shop, so for the first time in a while I was able to do some St. Louis Exploring.  For lack of a better idea, I simply took the bus downtown and starting walking toward Soulard, knowing that I didn’t really have a good grasp of what lay in between.  The dead zones between our “destination neighborhoods” are one of the biggest problems St. Louis has to tackle.

LaSalle Park

Crossing under Highway 40 on Broadway I entered LaSalle Park, a hidden gem nestled between Soulard, Layfayette Square and Downtown.  The neighborhood is cut off from the rest of the city by highways, and the damaged street grid leaves its few surviving blocks particularly isolated.   A Pedestrian Mall replaces Tenth Street from Hickory to Park Avenue, effectively separating the renovated historic homes to the east, from the mess of urban renewal to the west.

Tenth Street Mall in LaSalle Park

Dead-end streets north of Park on Ninth Street have been turned into cul-de-sacs, but they are shady, quiet, relatively dense, and feel great to walk down.  Large bushes visually separate the cul-de-sacs from the pedestrian mall, but the sidewalks merge into it.  The mall itself is both devoid of life and overgrown.

10th Street Pedestrian Mall from Park

In many ways, the Tenth Street Mall reflects St. Louis urban planning in general.  It has preservation on one side and auto-centric modern development  on the other.  It has glaring successes and failures.  It is cool and attractive but also lacks maintenance and use.  For many, however, it seems that LaSalle Park has the best of both worlds.  It is in the middle the city, but feels suburban in many ways.  It’s both old and new.  It has a totally random pedestrian mall running through part of it; and apparently that’s what people like because LaSalle Park is one of a small handful of St. Louis City neighborhoods to have gained population in 2010.  If you haven’t been, go check it out – the experience is quite pleasant.

More photos of LaSalle Park can be found here.

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